• Technological determinism involves the idea that "technology determines social and cultural trends and patterns" (Rettberg 52).
  • This idea is often criticized because technology itself can be determined by a culture or social trends (52-53). Therefore, this idea can be reversed and still essentially make sense.
  • However, a moderate idea in which technological determinism and culture and social trends are dependent on each other and have mutual dependencies is called co-construction (53).
  • When looking at how technology shapes our culture, it is important to note that a lot of the ways in which we use technologies are not obvious or necessary (53)
    • Example: One argument of why radios mostly remained one-way as opposed to two-way is that culturally, the public was in a "print mindset." They saw expression as something reserved for an elite few, so two-way communication was not as abundant (55-56)
  • How blogs have affected society and culture: allow more dialogue than the printed written word, cheaper than print, farther reaching distribution than print or even broadcasting, more social than print

Neil Postman, Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology and Technology:
According to Postman there are three types of worlds that arise. Postman believes the technology effects the way culture is structured.
  1. Tool-using cultures
    • tools are used to solve specific problems of physical life
    • tools serve the symbolic worlds: art, politics, myth, ritual, and religion
    These culture's tools allowed people to think freely and hold their own beliefs. They limited their use of the tools.
    The development of the mechanical clock, the printing press, and the telescope led to the next structure of culture
  2. Technocracies Tools are the most important item in the culture, and all other aspects of culture are secondary in importance. There is a separation of moral and intellectual values in Technocracy.
Technocracies brought into being an increased respect for the average person, whose potential and even convenience became a matter of compelling political interest and urgent social policy.
  1. Technopoly – the submission of all forms of cultural life to the sovereignty of technique and technology.
Postman fears that the US will become a Technopoly's for these reasons
  • Everything was advancing technologically and seeming to improve quality of life, standard of living, lifespan, etc. in the United States
  • American capitalists are ruthless and exploit humanity for wealth and power which usually correlates with technological development
  • Technology makes life easier. American have become accustomed to luxury.
  • Science and machinery were easier to trust than God, for they were tangible and you could observe them work successfully. i.e. Separation of Church and State in US governmental policies